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[[File:118full-blade-runner-screenshot.jpg|thumb|350px|The definition given in the opening to The Workprint Version]]
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{{Replicant tab|Film}}
A '''Replicant''' is a synthetic, biorobotic being with para-physical capabilities and designed to resemble a living, organic being. It is a genetically engineered being composed entirely of organic substance.
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{{Film Continuity}}
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[[File:118full-blade-runner-screenshot.jpg|thumb|350px|The definition given by the ''[[New American Dictionary]]''{{ref|brwp}}]]
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A '''replicant''' was a synthetic, bio-robotic being with para-physical capabilities and designed to resemble a living, organic being. It was a genetically engineered being "composed entirely of organic substance" and marketed for labor by [[Tyrell Corporation]] and its successor, the [[Wallace Corporation]].
   
==Description==
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Replicants were sometimes referred to as "'''skinjobs'''," as their likeness was often skindeep. The term was considered a slur.
===Background===
 
A replicant is a fictional bioengineered or biorobotic android appearing in the 1982 film [[Blade Runner]], in its 2017 sequel [[Blade Runner 2049]] and in the 1997 [[Blade Runner (1997 video game)|video game]] based on the film. The 'Nexus' series of replicants are virtually identical to adult humans, but have superior strength, speed, agility, resilience and intelligence to varying degrees depending on the model.
 
   
Replicants are genetically engineered beings composed entirely of organic substances William (1988:). Replicants are different from humans in that they are faster, smarter, and their emotions are programmed. [[Roy Batty|Roy]], who is a replicant, appears as a smartest machine and has a high IQ that was indicated by playing chess game ''[[Blade Runner]]'' (scott:1982). These replicant are also programmed to live for a designated four years. That is why they come back to their maker to negotiate the terms of their designated life span. In the film, the replicants represent the role of machine, whereas Deckard, the blade runner, takes the role of the human. The replicants pose an obvious danger to the functional aspects of utopian society.
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==History==
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A replicant was a bioengineered android composed entirely of organic material. The 'Nexus' series of replicants were virtually identical to adult humans, but had superior strength, speed, agility, resilience and intelligence to varying degrees depending on the model. These replicants were also programmed to live for a designated four years, an aspect that prompted [[Six renegade replicants|a group of replicants]] to revolt and travel to the Tyrell Corporation to negotiate the terms of their designated life span.{{ref|br}}
   
The science-fiction movie fully proves that the world that we imagine as perfect has a lot negative impact to human origin. [[Rick Deckard|Deckard]] in the film appears to have no emotions as he represents humans in 2019. Hence Roy who happens to be a replicant have many more emotions than Deckard, he manages to save him, that connotes caring. That means machines in the future will take a good care of humans.
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Some replicants were given away "free" to people accepting the offer to emigrate to the [[off-world]] [[Off-world Colonies|colonies]]. Others were used in combat to protect colonists and explore other worlds ([[Zuben]], [[Iggy Cygnus]] and [[Roy Batty]] were combat models). The Tyrell Corporation introduced the [[Nexus-6]], the supreme replicant much stronger and faster than, and virtually indistinguishable from, humans.{{ref|br}}
   
Animal replicants (animoids) were developed first for use as pets and beasts of burden after most real animals became extinct. Some replicants were given away "free" to people accepting the offer to emigrate to the [[Off-world]] [[Off-world Colonies|colonies]]. Others are used in combat to protect colonists and explore other worlds ([[Zuben]], [[Iggy Cygnus|Iggy]] and Roy Batty were combat models). The [[Tyrell Corporation]] introduced the [[Nexus-6]], the supreme replicant — much stronger and faster than, and virtually indistinguishable from, humans. Law forbids replicant existence on Earth, except in the huge industrial complex where they are created. The law does not consider replicants human and therefore accords them no rights nor protection.
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After a bloody mutiny against an off-world colony staged by a Nexus-6 combat team in 2018,{{ref|timeline}} the law forbade replicant existence on Earth, except in the huge industrial complex where they were created. The law did not consider replicants human and therefore accorded them no rights nor protection. Thus, special police units known as "[[Blade Runner (police)|Blade Runners]]" were established to hunt down and [[retire]] replicants.{{ref|br}}
   
===Psychological Aspect===
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A replicant could be detected by means of the [[Voight-Kampff test]], in which emotional responses were provoked; replicants' nonverbal responses differed from humans'. A key aspect of replicant psychology was that they are lacking in empathy, in effect making them textbook sociopaths. Nexus-6 replicants also had a safety mechanism, namely their four-year lifespan, to prevent them from developing empathic abilities (and, therefore, immunity to the test). This was especially necessary for Mental-A models whose intellectual capacity at least matched their designers. Due to their short lifespans, replicants had no framework within which to deal with their emotions, which led to them being emotionally inexperienced. [[Eldon Tyrell]] sought to change this by gifting replicants with a past through implanted memories and therefore creating an emotional cushion that would make them far more controllable. This vision led to the creation of [[Rachael]], a replicant who was implanted with the memories of Tyrell's niece and believed herself to be human.{{ref|br}}
Thus a replicant can only be detected by means of the fictional [[Voight-Kampff machine|Voight-Kampff test]], in which emotional responses are provoked; replicants' nonverbal responses differ from humans'. A key aspect of replicant psychology is that they are lacking in empathy, in effect making them textbook sociopaths. Nexus-6 replicants also have a safety mechanism, namely a four-year lifespan, to prevent them from developing empathic abilities (and, therefore, immunity to the test). This is especially necessary for Mental-A models whose intellectual capacity at least matches their designers. Due to their short lifespans, replicants had no framework within which to deal with their emotions, which lead to them being emotionally inexperienced. Tyrell sought to change this by gifting replicant with a past through implanted memories and therefore creating an emotional cushion that would make them far more controllable. This vision lead to the creation of [[Rachael]], a replicant who was implanted with the memories of Tyrell's niece and believed herself to be human. Replicants are sometimes referred to by the slur "skin-job".
 
   
===Outlaw===
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According to Blade Runner [[Rick Deckard]], a normal replicant could usually be discovered using the Voight-Kampff test, after being given twenty to thirty questions. [[Rachael]] answered over one-hundred questions before Deckard determined she was a replicant.{{ref|br}}
Replicants are illegal on Earth after a bloody mutiny against an off-world colony staged by a Nexus-6 combat model. Special police units ([[Blade Runner (police)|Blade Runners]]) are sent to investigate, test and ultimately "[[retire]]" (kill) replicants found on Earth.
 
   
The debate concerning Deckard's replicant status continues despite director Scott's [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6774128243172902888# repeated clarifications]. This following essay critically explains the relationship between science fiction and the contemporary life of the viewer according to Blade Runner (Scott 1982). I will discuss how the city of Los Angeles being depicted in regards to utopia and dystopia and science fiction referring to Ramona Pringle (2013). A screen short from the film Blade Runner (Scott 1982) will be used as a visual example to reinforce the understanding of the terms’ utopia and dystopia with a specific reference.
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Prompted by Tyrell's death in November 2019 at the hands of Nexus-6 Roy Batty, the [[Nexus-8]] model was rushed onto the market in 2020 with open-ended lifespans and ocular implants for easy identification.{{ref|timeline}}
   
According to Deckard, a normal replicant can usually be discovered using the Voight-Kampff test, after being given 20–30 questions. Rachael answers over 100 questions before Deckard determines she is a replicant. The theatrical cut's voice-over ending said that as an experimental replicant, Rachael didn't have the four-year life but the Director's Cut did not address this. Scott said that he had wanted to cast a young actress in the role to emphasise Rachael's naivety and unworldliness.
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In addition to her memory implants, Rachael was an experimental reproductive model of replicant, who ultimately conceived a [[Ana Stelline|daughter]] with Deckard. As she died during childbirth in 2021, of complications related to a caesarean section, it is uncertain if she could have lived beyond four years.{{ref|br2049}}
   
The second film further developed her origin and gave significantly more details about her radical design. It revealed most significantly she was an experimental reproductive model of replicant (who ultimately had a [[Ana Stelline|daughter]] to Deckard) with a high degree of human organs in comparison to replicant parts. She has an internal human bone structure, natural eyes, hair, skin and reproductive organs. This explains her uncanny ability to pass as human. Thus the film suggests it was only her mind and possibly other vital organs which were the replicant parts. As she died during childbirth, of complications related to a caesarean section, it remains uncertain if she could have lived beyond the four years.
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Replicants were widely believed to be the cause of the [[Blackout]] in 2022.{{ref|timeline}}
   
This is an image from the film Blade Runner. The image shows Deckard who plays the role of the detective hanging from a ledge, and Roy who is a replicant leaning over the ledge saving Deckard’s life by pulling him up Blade Runner (Scott:1982). They are on top of a building with the aftermath of a fight. Roy is genetically engineered form of species very identical to regular human, yet he is a replicant. In the film Blade Runner(Scott;1982) there is an evidence power struggle with Deckard being at the weaker end. Deckard is vulnerable at the half naked replicant mercy. This displays the binary opposites of the dominant and submissive roles between human being weaker over the replicant.
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In 2023, an indefinite prohibition was placed on replicant production. By this time, all of the Nexus-6 models had been decommissioned due to their four-year lifespans. Surviving Nexus-8 replicants were ordered to be retired, prompting some to go into hiding.{{ref|timeline}}
   
==Origin==
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In the 2030s, after acquiring the remnants of the bankrupt Tyrell Corporation, [[Niander Wallace]], with his company, the [[Wallace Corporation]], improved upon Tyrell's replicants by making them obedient and able to be controlled. This led to the prohibition being lifted in 2036 and the introduction of the [[Nexus-9]].{{ref|timeline}}
In [[Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?]], the android manufacturer, known as the Rosen Corporation, did not know how to manufacture an android capable of living beyond four years. The super-soldiers in Soldier—the "spiritual successor" to Blade Runner—are intended to be replicants in the film.
 
   
In his novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (the inspiration for Blade Runner), [[Philip K. Dick]] used the term android (or "andy"), but director [[Ridley Scott]] wanted a new term that the audience would not have any preconceptions about. As [[David Peoples]] was re-writing the screenplay, he consulted his daughter, who was involved in microbiology and biochemistry. She suggested the term "replicating", the biological process of a cell making a copy of itself. From that, either Peoples or Scott—each would later recall it was the other—came up with replicant and it was inserted into Hampton Fancher's screenplay.
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Animal replicants ([[animoid]]s) were developed first for use as pets and beasts of burden after most real animals became extinct.{{ref|br}}
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==Behind the scenes==
  +
In his novel ''[[Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?]]'' (the basis of ''[[Blade Runner]]''), [[Philip K. Dick]] used the term [[android]] (or "andy"), but director [[Ridley Scott]] wanted a new term that the audience would not have any preconceptions about. As [[David Peoples]] was re-writing the screenplay, he consulted his daughter, who was involved in microbiology and biochemistry. She suggested the term "replicating", the biological process of a cell making a copy of itself. From that, either Peoples or Scott—each would later recall it was the other—came up with replicant and it was inserted into Hampton Fancher's screenplay.{{ref|fn}}
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  +
The theatrical cut's voice-over ending states that as an experimental replicant, Rachael did not have the four-year life-span.
  +
  +
The super-soldiers in ''[[Soldier]]'' — the "spiritual successor" to ''Blade Runner'' — are intended to be replicants in the film.
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  +
[[M. Emmet Walsh]] contends that, during filming, the term "skinjob" was not considered bigoted, instead being simply slang for a replicant. The idea of it being a pejorative term originated with the theatrical version's voiceovers.{{ref|fn}} Additionally, the workprint version's definition of replicant refers to the term as slang.
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==References==
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{{Reflist}}
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[[ja:レプリカント]]
 
[[Category:Culture]]
 
[[Category:Culture]]
 
[[Category:Replicant models| ]]
 
[[Category:Replicant models| ]]

Latest revision as of 14:23, August 20, 2019

Film
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?
Header Tag Spacer
Film Continuity
118full-blade-runner-screenshot

The definition given by the New American Dictionary[1]

A replicant was a synthetic, bio-robotic being with para-physical capabilities and designed to resemble a living, organic being. It was a genetically engineered being "composed entirely of organic substance" and marketed for labor by Tyrell Corporation and its successor, the Wallace Corporation.

Replicants were sometimes referred to as "skinjobs," as their likeness was often skindeep. The term was considered a slur.

HistoryEdit

A replicant was a bioengineered android composed entirely of organic material. The 'Nexus' series of replicants were virtually identical to adult humans, but had superior strength, speed, agility, resilience and intelligence to varying degrees depending on the model. These replicants were also programmed to live for a designated four years, an aspect that prompted a group of replicants to revolt and travel to the Tyrell Corporation to negotiate the terms of their designated life span.[2]

Some replicants were given away "free" to people accepting the offer to emigrate to the off-world colonies. Others were used in combat to protect colonists and explore other worlds (Zuben, Iggy Cygnus and Roy Batty were combat models). The Tyrell Corporation introduced the Nexus-6, the supreme replicant — much stronger and faster than, and virtually indistinguishable from, humans.[2]

After a bloody mutiny against an off-world colony staged by a Nexus-6 combat team in 2018,[3] the law forbade replicant existence on Earth, except in the huge industrial complex where they were created. The law did not consider replicants human and therefore accorded them no rights nor protection. Thus, special police units known as "Blade Runners" were established to hunt down and retire replicants.[2]

A replicant could be detected by means of the Voight-Kampff test, in which emotional responses were provoked; replicants' nonverbal responses differed from humans'. A key aspect of replicant psychology was that they are lacking in empathy, in effect making them textbook sociopaths. Nexus-6 replicants also had a safety mechanism, namely their four-year lifespan, to prevent them from developing empathic abilities (and, therefore, immunity to the test). This was especially necessary for Mental-A models whose intellectual capacity at least matched their designers. Due to their short lifespans, replicants had no framework within which to deal with their emotions, which led to them being emotionally inexperienced. Eldon Tyrell sought to change this by gifting replicants with a past through implanted memories and therefore creating an emotional cushion that would make them far more controllable. This vision led to the creation of Rachael, a replicant who was implanted with the memories of Tyrell's niece and believed herself to be human.[2]

According to Blade Runner Rick Deckard, a normal replicant could usually be discovered using the Voight-Kampff test, after being given twenty to thirty questions. Rachael answered over one-hundred questions before Deckard determined she was a replicant.[2]

Prompted by Tyrell's death in November 2019 at the hands of Nexus-6 Roy Batty, the Nexus-8 model was rushed onto the market in 2020 with open-ended lifespans and ocular implants for easy identification.[3]

In addition to her memory implants, Rachael was an experimental reproductive model of replicant, who ultimately conceived a daughter with Deckard. As she died during childbirth in 2021, of complications related to a caesarean section, it is uncertain if she could have lived beyond four years.[4]

Replicants were widely believed to be the cause of the Blackout in 2022.[3]

In 2023, an indefinite prohibition was placed on replicant production. By this time, all of the Nexus-6 models had been decommissioned due to their four-year lifespans. Surviving Nexus-8 replicants were ordered to be retired, prompting some to go into hiding.[3]

In the 2030s, after acquiring the remnants of the bankrupt Tyrell Corporation, Niander Wallace, with his company, the Wallace Corporation, improved upon Tyrell's replicants by making them obedient and able to be controlled. This led to the prohibition being lifted in 2036 and the introduction of the Nexus-9.[3]

Animal replicants (animoids) were developed first for use as pets and beasts of burden after most real animals became extinct.[2]

Behind the scenesEdit

In his novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (the basis of Blade Runner), Philip K. Dick used the term android (or "andy"), but director Ridley Scott wanted a new term that the audience would not have any preconceptions about. As David Peoples was re-writing the screenplay, he consulted his daughter, who was involved in microbiology and biochemistry. She suggested the term "replicating", the biological process of a cell making a copy of itself. From that, either Peoples or Scott—each would later recall it was the other—came up with replicant and it was inserted into Hampton Fancher's screenplay.[5]

The theatrical cut's voice-over ending states that as an experimental replicant, Rachael did not have the four-year life-span.

The super-soldiers in Soldier — the "spiritual successor" to Blade Runner — are intended to be replicants in the film.

M. Emmet Walsh contends that, during filming, the term "skinjob" was not considered bigoted, instead being simply slang for a replicant. The idea of it being a pejorative term originated with the theatrical version's voiceovers.[5] Additionally, the workprint version's definition of replicant refers to the term as slang.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Blade Runner – workprint version
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Blade Runner – all versions
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Road to 2049 timeline
  4. Blade Runner 2049
  5. 5.0 5.1 Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner – Revised & Updated Edition
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